A firm focusing on a production orientation specializes in producing as much as possible of a given product or service in order to achieve economies of scale or economies of scope. A production orientation may be deployed when a high demand for a product or service exists, coupled with certainty that consumer tastes and preferences remain relatively constant (similar to the sales orientation). The so-called production era is thought to have dominated marketing practice from the 1860s to the 1930s, but other theorists argue that evidence of the production orientation can still be found in some companies or industries. Specifically Kotler and Armstrong note that the production philosophy is "one of the oldest philosophies that guides sellers... [and] is still useful in some situations." [29]
The This Is Us star and his new bride—who were married on Oct. 28 during an emotional outdoor ceremony—chose a pink ombre look for their three-tier confection for a very special reason. The design created by Sweet Lady Jane bakery intentionally mirrored the rose petals that covered the aisle at their wedding—both the aisle and the cake transitioned from dark pink to white.
Morgan, in Riding the Waves of Change (Jossey-Bass, 1988), suggests that one of the greatest limitations of the 4 Ps approach "is that it unconsciously emphasizes the inside–out view (looking from the company outwards), whereas the essence of marketing should be the outside–in approach". An inside-out approach is the traditional planning approach where the organisation identifies its desired goals and objectives which are often based around what has always been done. Marketing's task then becomes one of "selling" the organisation's products and messages to the "outside" or external stakeholders.[45] In contrast, an outside-in approach first seeks to understand the needs and wants of the consumer.[46]
Special cake flour with a high starch-to-gluten ratio is made from fine-textured, soft, low-protein wheat. It is strongly bleached, and compared to all-purpose flour, cake flour tends to result in cakes with a lighter, less dense texture.[16] Therefore, it is frequently specified or preferred in cakes meant to be soft, light, and/or bright white, such as angel food cake. However, if cake flour is called for, a substitute can be made by replacing a small percentage of all-purpose flour with cornstarch or removing two tablespoons from each cup of all-purpose flour.[17][18][19] Some recipes explicitly specify or permit all-purpose flour, notably where a firmer or denser cake texture is desired.
The Broadway star’s country-themed California wedding featured a cake inspired by her favorite Kentucky dessert: Derby Pie. The confection was a 3-tier, gluten-free chocolate cake with bourbon pecan mousse filling layered with chocolate chips. The frosting on the cake was a vanilla bean buttercream, which was drizzled with bourbon confectioners’ glaze to create the trendy drip look on top. 

The Greeks invented beer as a leavener, frying fritters in olive oil, and cheesecakes using goat's milk.[4] In ancient Rome, basic bread dough was sometimes enriched with butter, eggs, and honey, which produced a sweet and cake-like baked good.[5] Latin poet Ovid refers his and his brother's birthday party and cake in his first book of exile, Tristia.[6]
A cake can fall, whereby parts of it sink or flatten, when baked at a temperature that is too low or too hot,[20][21] when it has been underbaked[21] and when placed in an oven that is too hot at the beginning of the baking process.[22] The use of excessive amounts of sugar, flour, fat or leavening can also cause a cake to fall.[22][23] A cake can also fall when subjected to cool air that enters an oven when the oven door is opened during the cooking process.[24]
That trusted 13- x 9-inch pan is good for more than just brownies and casseroles. Break it in with these easy sheet cake recipes that are perfect for a special occasion. Skip the hassle of a layer cake, and opt for a simple icing or glaze to top off your cake. From red velvet to strawberry to coconut, there's no shortage of options for your next sheet cake.
Finally, promotion refers to the integrated marketing communications campaign. Promotional activities may include advertising, personal selling, sales promotions, public relations, direct marketing, sponsorship and guerrilla marketing. Promotions are likely to vary depending on what stage of product life cycle the product is in. Marketers must know consumers associate a product’s price and distribution with its quality, and would be prudent to take this into account when devising the overall marketing strategy.
Your marketing team will check out competitors’ product prices, or use focus groups and surveys, to estimate how much your ideal customer is willing to pay. Price it too high, and you’ll lose out on a solid customer base. Price it too low, and you might lose more money than you gain. Fortunately, marketers can use industry research and consumer analysis to gauge a good price range.
Baked flourless cakes include baked cheesecakes and flourless chocolate cakes. Cheesecakes, despite their name, aren't really cakes at all. Cheesecakes are in fact custard pies, with a filling made mostly of some form of cheese (often cream cheese, mascarpone, ricotta, or the like), and have very little flour added, although a flour-based or graham cracker crust may be used. Cheesecakes are also very old, with evidence of honey-sweetened cakes dating back to ancient Greece.
What does it take to do that? Simply put, you have to take a step back for a moment. You have to analyze and understand the basic mechanics of your message and how to effectively reach a larger audience without losing your shirt. The secret to all of this? No matter what marketing strategy you use, if you don't have an effective sales funnel and optimize your conversions, you'll just be throwing money away.
Marketing research, conducted for the purpose of new product development or product improvement, is often concerned with identifying the consumer's unmet needs.[13] Customer needs are central to market segmentation which is concerned with dividing markets into distinct groups of buyers on the basis of "distinct needs, characteristics, or behaviors who might require separate products or marketing mixes." [14] Needs-based segmentation (also known as benefit segmentation) "places the customers' desires at the forefront of how a company designs and markets products or services." [15] Although needs-based segmentation is difficult to do in practice, it has been proved to be one of the most effective ways to segment a market.[16][13][17] In addition, a great deal of advertising and promotion is designed to show how a given product's benefits meet the customer's needs, wants or expectations in a unique way.[18]
Marc Schroeder, the global marketing head for PepsiCo’s Quaker brand, understood the need for internal cohesiveness when he led a cross-regional “marketing council” to develop and communicate the brand’s first global growth strategy. The council defined a purposeful positioning, nailed down the brand’s global objectives, set a prioritized growth agenda, created clear lines of accountability and incentives, and adopted a performance dashboard that tracked industry measures such as market share and revenue growth. The council communicated the strategy through regional and local team meetings, including those with agencies and retail customers worldwide, and hosted a first-ever global brand stewardship event to educate colleagues. As a result of those efforts, all Quaker marketing plans are now explicitly linked to one overall strategy.

Special cake flour with a high starch-to-gluten ratio is made from fine-textured, soft, low-protein wheat. It is strongly bleached, and compared to all-purpose flour, cake flour tends to result in cakes with a lighter, less dense texture.[16] Therefore, it is frequently specified or preferred in cakes meant to be soft, light, and/or bright white, such as angel food cake. However, if cake flour is called for, a substitute can be made by replacing a small percentage of all-purpose flour with cornstarch or removing two tablespoons from each cup of all-purpose flour.[17][18][19] Some recipes explicitly specify or permit all-purpose flour, notably where a firmer or denser cake texture is desired.
Marketers understand that their organizations need an overhaul, and many chief marketing officers are tearing up their org charts. But in our research and our work with hundreds of global marketing organizations, we’ve found that those CMOs are struggling with how to draw the new chart. What does the ideal structure look like? Our answer is that this is the wrong question. A simple blueprint does not exist.
The product aspects of marketing deal with the specifications of the actual goods or services, and how it relates to the end-user's needs and wants. The product element consists of product design, new product innovation, branding, packaging, labelling. The scope of a product generally includes supporting elements such as warranties, guarantees, and support. Branding, a key aspect of the product management, refers to the various methods of communicating a brand identity for the product, brand, or company.

This incredibly moist bundt cake gains its strong apple flavor from shredded Granny smith apples baked into the batter, as well as a concentrated apple liquid that is used to create the cake’s sweet-tart apple and cream cheese glaze. Get the Recipe: Apple Bundt Cake with Apple-Cream Cheese Glaze  How to Make Peach Upside-Down Cake How to Make Coconut Cake

^ Blackwell Reference, http://www.blackwellreference.com/public/tocnode?id=g9780631233176_chunk_g978140510254422_ss1-48; Kotler, P., "What consumerism means for marketers", Harvard Business Review, vol. 50, no. 3, 1972, pp 48-57; Wilkie, W.L. and Moore, E.S., "Macromarketing as a Pillar of Marketing Thought," Journal of Macromarketing, Vol. 26 No. 2, December 2006, pp 224-232 DOI: 10.1177/0276146706291067; Wilkie, W. L. and Moore, E.S., "Scholarly Research in Marketing: Exploring the “4 Eras” of Thought Development," Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2003, pp 116–146
Add value. That’s the secret. It’s not really a secret at all. We've already talked about it throughout this piece. Although when you look at some of the marketing companies engage in you wonder if they’re purposely avoiding the obvious. We skip advertising when it provides little to no value. If you want to learn about advertising that doesn’t get skipped, find a skateboarder and ask him if you can watch him look through a skateboard magazine. You’ll see that he spends as much time looking at the ads as he does looking at the articles and photos. Or check out The Berrics website. Much of the content is advertisements, but skaters don’t skip these videos, they watch them just like they watch the other videos, because they’re getting the value they want--good skating. As a skater I’d like to say skateboard companies pioneered content marketing decades ago, but I know they were only doing what came naturally, and selling more product was secondary to the fun of creating videos and magazines. If you want to hire someone onto your marketing team who understands content marketing intuitively, hiring a skateboarder might not be a bad step.
A fancy-schmancy tower of tiers wouldn’t have matched the country-cool vibe at the July 2 Montana wedding of the Full House star and his photographer girlfriend. Instead, their 100 guests, including his former costars John Stamos, Bob Saget and Candace Cameron Bure, were treated to a more casual cake that was “naked” (no frosting) and homemade (courtesy of the bride’s best friend’s mother). The chocolate layers were filled with salted caramel and the vanilla layers with raspberry sauce. Guests loved it so much, says the bride, “there wasn’t much left!”

That trusted 13- x 9-inch pan is good for more than just brownies and casseroles. Break it in with these easy sheet cake recipes that are perfect for a special occasion. Skip the hassle of a layer cake, and opt for a simple icing or glaze to top off your cake. From red velvet to strawberry to coconut, there's no shortage of options for your next sheet cake.
Podcasts. Michael Hyatt, author of the best-selling book Platform: Get Noticed in a Noisy World, practices what he preaches. His “This is Your Life” podcast is downloaded 250,000 times each month. As Hyatt elaborates on his blog post 4 Reasons You Should Consider Launching Your Own Podcast, “A podcast gives you visibility in a completely different world—primarily iTunes. I have had scores of new people say they had never heard of me until they stumbled onto me in iTunes.” Hyatt gives valuable information and advice in his podcast--all for free. But that podcast leads to more sales of his books, signups for his courses, and requests for him as a speaker.
Solve this equation: 1 vanilla layer with pineapple filling + 1 chocolate layer with coconut cream + 1 red velvet layer with cream cheese = ???. Answer: McKellar and Svesloky’s wedding cake! “We wanted something for everyone, and the pineapple and coconut kept it faithful to our luau-themed reception,” says the former Wonder Years star and math-education advocate about the couple’s November 22 wedding on a Kauai, Hawaii, beach. How did the buttercream-frosted cake taste? As McKellar posted on Twitter, “It was yummy.”
Every Halloween since 1990 The Bakery has hosted Night of 100 Pumpkins. People of all ages carve or paint pumpkins and a panel of artists pick the winners. Petrifying Pumpkins - Peculiar Pumpkins - Pretty Pumpkins - Panoramic Pumpkins and more. over 50 prizes. All prizes are donated by local merchants who generously support our event year after year. 
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