Cakes may be classified according to the occasion for which they are intended. For example, wedding cakes, birthday cakes, cakes for first communion, Christmas cakes, Halloween cakes, and Passover plava (a type of sponge cake sometimes made with matzo meal) are all identified primarily according to the celebration they are intended to accompany. The cutting of a wedding cake constitutes a social ceremony in some cultures. The Ancient Roman marriage ritual of confarreatio originated in the sharing of a cake.
To understand what separates the strategies and structures of superior marketing organizations from the rest, EffectiveBrands (now Millward Brown Vermeer)—in partnership with the Association of National Advertisers, the World Federation of Advertisers, Spencer Stuart, Forbes, MetrixLab, and Adobe—initiated Marketing2020, which to our knowledge is the most comprehensive marketing leadership study ever undertaken. Coauthor Keith Weed, the CMO of Unilever, is the chairman of the initiative’s advisory board. To date the study has included in-depth qualitative interviews with more than 350 CEOs, CMOs, and agency heads, and over a dozen CMO roundtables in cities worldwide. We also conducted online quantitative surveys of 10,000-plus marketers from 92 countries. The surveys encompassed more than 80 questions focusing on marketers’ data analytics capabilities, brand strategy, cross-functional and global interactions, and employee training.
A firm employing a product orientation is mainly concerned with the quality of its own product. A product orientation is based on the assumption that, all things being equal, consumers will purchase products of a superior quality. The approach is most effective when the firm has deep insights into customers and their needs and desires derived from research and (or) intuition and understands consumers' quality expectations and price they are willing to pay. For example, Sony Walkman and Apple iPod were innovative product designs that addressed consumers' unmet needs. Although the product orientation has largely been supplanted by the marketing orientation, firms practising a product orientation can still be found in haute couture and in arts marketing.
What type of lead magnet should you build? That could either be an ebook, a cheat sheet, a checklist, a video and others. Of course, it's not just about the lead magnet. You have to have a squeeze page with sizzling sales copy to get people to drop into your funnel. But it all starts with a great lead magnet. The better it is, the more effective you'll be at reaching your audience.
In the consumer-driven approach, consumer wants are the drivers of all strategic marketing decisions. No strategy is pursued until it passes the test of consumer research. Every aspect of a market offering, including the nature of the product itself, is driven by the needs of potential consumers. The starting point is always the consumer. The rationale for this approach is that there is no point spending R&D funds developing products that people will not buy. History attests to many products that were commercial failures in spite of being technological breakthroughs.
Bakery Nouveau is a feast for the senses. Blocks away, the aroma of fresh baked goods tantalize the nose. Take a bite of anything, and you’ll see why people make special trips to our shops in Burien, West Seattle and Capitol Hill to experience the unforgettable charm of Bakery Nouveau. Get a taste online—then make haste to Bakery Nouveau for a culinary seduction unlike any in Seattle.
^ Fisk, R.P., Brown, W. and Bitner, M.J., "Tracking the Evolution of Services Marketing Literature, Journal of Retailing, vol. 41 (April), 1993; Booms, B. and Bitner, M. J. "Marketing Strategies and Organizational Structures for Service Firms" in James H. Donnelly and William R. George (eds), Marketing of Services, Chicago: American Marketing Association, 47–51; Rafiq,M. and Ahmed,P.K. "Using the 7Ps as a Generic Marketing mix: An Exploratory Survey of UK and European Marketing Academics", Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 13, no. 9, pp 4–15
On the day of their May 6 nuptials in Devon, England, the British Olympic diver surprised Black with a five-tier, red, white and blue cake made by U.K. bakery Crumbs & Doilies. The dessert featured layers of banana chocolate chip cake (Daley’s favorite) and carrot cake (Black’s favorite) and each tier had its own unique patriotic design, including one decorated with white chocolate bark made by Daley himself.
Marketing historically has marched to its own drummer, at best unevenly supporting strategy handed down from headquarters and, more commonly, pursuing brand or marketing goals (such as growing brand equity) that were not directly related to the overall business strategy. Today high-performing marketing leaders don’t just align their department’s activities with company strategy; they actively engage in creating it. From 2006 to 2013, our surveys show, marketing’s influence on strategy development increased by 20 percentage points. And when marketing demonstrates that it is fighting for the same business objectives as its peers, trust and communication strengthen across all functions and, as we shall see, enable the collaboration required for high performance.
Companies are using this model to create task forces for a range of marketing programs, from integrating online and physical retail experiences to introducing new products. When Unilever launched Project Sunlight—a consumer-engagement program connected with its sustainable-living initiative—the team drew talent from seven expertise areas. The international cable company Liberty Global uses task forces to optimize the customer experience at key engagement points—such as when customers receive a bill. These teams are led by managers from a variety of marketing and nonmarketing functions, have different durations, and draw from each of the three talent pools in different measure.
Our research has identified five drivers of organizational effectiveness. The leaders of high-performing companies connect marketing to the business strategy and to the rest of the organization; inspire their organizations by engaging all levels with the brand purpose; focus their people on a few key priorities; organize agile, cross-functional teams; and build the internal capabilities needed for success.
CMOs and other marketing leaders increasingly operate as orchestrators, tapping talent from inside and outside the company to staff short-term task forces. Those task forces bring together people, each with one of three kinds of focus: think, feel, or do. Depending on the task, the mix of those three types shifts. Here’s how cable service provider Liberty Global mixed team members for three task forces. Choose a task force to see the team’s think-feel-do mix and the results they got.
Grocery stores and supermarkets, in many countries, sell prepackaged or pre-sliced bread, cakes, and other pastries. They can also offer in-store baking and basic cake decoration. Nonetheless, many people still prefer to get their baked goods from a small artisanal bakery, either out of tradition, the availability of a greater variety of baked goods, or due to the higher quality products characteristic of the trade of baking.